Hadrian (/ˈhdriən/) (76–138 CE) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138 CE. Hadrian is known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. He also rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and RomaPhilhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as one of the Five Good EmperorsHadrian’s building projects are perhaps his most enduring legacy and had a great interest in architecture ,however, it is not believed that he was the lead architect on any project.



The Pantheon (118-128 CE) from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion meaning "[temple] of every god") is a building in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier building commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BCE – 14 CE). The present building was completed by the emperor Hadrian with preliminary (at least) assistance from Apollodorus of Damascus. He retained Agrippa's original inscription, which has confused its date of construction. Until the 20th century, the Pantheon was the largest concrete structure in the world. Michelangelo studied its great dome before starting work on the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.


The whole building stands on a 4.3 ft high base which originally extended a further 23 ft in front of the colonnade. Steps in Numidian yellow marble extended from the outer ends of this base. The building consists of two principal parts - the porch, which is very Classical Greek in presentation, and the circular main building which is much more Roman in style and reminiscent of the architecture of the large Roman baths. The circular building is built with brick and concrete but was originally faced with white marble stucco to match the porch in appearance. The dome is concrete with the external surface originally covered in sheets of bronze but these were removed by Constans II in 663 CE.

The porch (pronaos) measures 109 ft x 44.6 ft and presents a front colonnade of eight Corinthian columns 39 ft high x 5 ft, weighing 60 tons. The grey granite monolithic column shafts were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus with the bases and capitals in white Pentelic marble. The pediment above the columns is now empty but drill holes suggest there was originally an emblem of some sort, possibly an eagle or wreath which would have been in gilded bronze and symbolized Jupiter. The porch was faced with white Pentelic marble and is decorated with reliefs showing objects used in religious sacrifices (such as dishes, boxes and axes), garlands and candelabras. The interior of the porch measures 111.5 x 65.5 ft and has four rose-pink columns creating three aisles. The pavement is restored but reflects the original design with grey granite rectangles and circles in white marble. The interior of the porch was also paneled with marble but this has since been lost, revealing the brickwork.


The Pantheon may well be the first building from Classical architecture where the interior is deliberately made to outshine the exterior. The circular part of the building or rotunda was entranced via two bronze doors measuring (which are original and were once covered in gold) weigh 20 tons each) 39 ft x 24.6 ft. The rotunda measures 142 ft in diameter which is exactly the maximum height of the dome, itself a perfect hemisphere. At the very top of the dome is an opening to the sky (oculus) which is 8.8 m in diameter and has a decorative bronze sheet frieze. The dome, which weighs in at 4,999 tons, is made from a light tufa and scoria (a type of pumice) mix of concrete (caementa) and its interior is further lightened by five rings of 28 coffers which reduce in size as they rise towards the center of the dome. The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest un-reinforced concrete dome. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes.

The wall of the rotunda is 20 ft thick and has seven alcoves which are alternatively semi-circular (3) and rectangular (4). The alcove opposite the door is the most impressive and reaches the ceiling. It has a decorative red porphyry frieze and cornice and is flanked by two Corinthian marble columns of Phrygian purple. Each of the other alcoves has two marble columns in Phrygian purple (semi-circular) or Numidian yellow (rectangular). Each alcove also had three niches for statues and a small window with another seven windows placed around the rotunda walls. The pavement is the original and consists of a square pattern using grey granite, red porphyry, Numidian yellow and Phrygian purple marble.

Significant Building Projects




Thank you for visiting my website. My name is Mark Smith and I reside in Stevensville, Michigan my wife and two children. I have been interested in Architecture since my boyhood days; however, because of my families business—a lumberyard—I never really got a chance to pursue my dream until later in my career. Read more...


Who's Online

We have 130 guests and no members online